Extracts

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Space and time


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[1 of 11] Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804, Germany): primary subject "Philosophy, extracts" (search under Inner Life/Mind, Psyche, Soul, Spirit)": detail "‘Critique of Pure Reason: Second Section of the Transcendental Aesthetic’, ‘Of Time’"
Time has one dimension only; different times are not simultaneous, but successive, while different spaces are never successive, but simultaneous. Such principles cannot be derived from experience, because experience could not impart to them absolute universality nor apodictic certainty. We should only be able to say that common experience teaches us that it is so, but not that it must be so. These principles are valid as rules under which alone experience is possible; they teach us before experience, not by means of experience.

[2 of 11] Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804, Germany): primary subject "Philosophy, extracts" (search under Inner Life/Mind, Psyche, Soul, Spirit)": detail "‘Critique of Pure Reason: Chapter II: Of the Deduction of the Pure Concepts of the Understanding’, section 13"
For, as no object can appear to us, that is, become an object of empirical intuition, except through such pure forms of sensibility, space and time are pure intuitions which contain a priori the conditions of the possibility of objects as phenomena, and the synthesis in these intuitions possesses objective validity.

[3 of 11] Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804, Germany): primary subject "Philosophy, extracts" (search under Inner Life/Mind, Psyche, Soul, Spirit)": detail "‘Critique of Pure Reason: Principles of Pure Understanding’ II ‘Anticipations of perception’"
Perception is empirical consciousness, that is, a consciousness in which there is at the same time sensation. Phenomena, as objects of perception, are not pure (merely formal) intuitions, like space and time (for space and time can never be perceived by themselves).

[4 of 11] Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804, Germany): primary subject "Philosophy, extracts" (search under Inner Life/Mind, Psyche, Soul, Spirit)": source "Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics": detail "‘The Main Transcendental Question’ First Part, section 10"
Space and time … are the pure intuitions that underlie a priori the empirical intuitions … and thereby prove that they are mere forms of our sensibility that must precede all empirical intuition (ie. the perception of actual objects).

[5 of 11] Underhill, Evelyn (1875-1941, England): primary subject "Reality, observations on" (search under Inner Life/Teachings)": source "Mysticism"
But we have no reason to suppose that matter, space, and time are necessarily parts of reality; of the ultimate Idea. Probability points rather to their being the pencil and paper with which we sketch it.

[6 of 11] Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804, Germany): primary subject "Philosophy, extracts" (search under Inner Life/Mind, Psyche, Soul, Spirit)": detail "‘Critique of Pure Reason: First Section of the Transcendental Aesthetic’ part 2, A (first version) 23"
Time cannot be perceived externally, as little as space can be perceived as something within us.

[7 of 11] Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804, Germany): primary subject "Philosophy, extracts" (search under Inner Life/Mind, Psyche, Soul, Spirit)": source "Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics": detail "‘Main Transcendental Question’, Second part, section 38"
Here then is nature that rests on laws that the understanding cognizes a priori, and indeed chiefly from universal principles of the determination of space. Now I ask: do these laws of nature lie in space, and does the understanding learn them in that it merely seeks to investigate the wealth of meaning that lies in space, or do they lie in the understanding and in the way in which it determines space in accordance with the conditions of the synthetic unity toward which its concepts are one and all directed? Space is something so uniform, and so indeterminate with respect to all specific properties, that certainly no one will look for a stock of natural laws within it. By contrast, that which determines space into the figure of a circle, a cone, or a sphere is the understanding, insofar as it contains the basis for the unity of the construction of these figures. The bare universal form of intuition called space is therefore certainly the substratum of all intuitions determinable upon particular objects, and, admittedly, the condition for the possibility and variety of those intuitions lies in this space; but the unity of the objects is determined solely through the understanding, and indeed according to conditions that reside in its own nature; and so the understanding is the origin of the universal order of nature, in that it comprehends all appearances under its own laws and thereby first brings about experience a priori (with respect to its form), in virtue of which everything that is to be cognized only through experience is necessarily subject to its laws. For we are not concerned with the nature of the things in themselves, which is independent of the conditions of both our senses and understanding, but with nature as an object of possible experience, and here the understanding, since it makes experience possible, at the same time makes it that the sensible world is either not an object of experience at all, or else is nature.

[8 of 11] Vivekananda (1863-1902, India): primary subject "Reality, observations on" (search under Inner Life/Teachings)": detail "From ‘Jnana Yoga: The Absolute and Manifestation’"
The one peculiar attribute we find in time, space, and causation is that they cannot exist separate from other things. Try to think of space without color, or limits, or any connection with the things around — just abstract space. You cannot; you have to think of it as the space between two limits or between three objects. It has to be connected with some object to have any existence. So with time; you cannot have any idea of abstract time, but you have to take two events, one preceding and the other succeeding, and join the two events by the idea of succession. Time depends on two events, just as space has to be related to outside objects. And the idea of causation is inseparable from time and space. This is the peculiar thing about them that they have no independent existence. They have not even the existence which the chair or the wall has. They are as shadows around everything which you cannot catch. They have no real existence; yet they are not non-existent, seeing that through them all things are manifesting as this universe. Thus we see, first, that the combination of time, space, and causation has neither existence nor non-existence. Secondly, it sometimes vanishes. To give an illustration, there is a wave on the ocean. The wave is the same as the ocean certainly, and yet we know it is a wave, and as such different from the ocean. What makes this difference? The name and the form; that is, the idea in the mind and the form. Now, can we think of a wave-form as something separate from the ocean? Certainly not. It is always associated with the ocean idea. If the wave subsides, the form vanishes in a moment, and yet the form was not a delusion. So long as the wave existed the form was there, and you were bound to see the form. This is Maya [illusion].

[9 of 11] Merrell-Wolff, Franklin (1887-1985, USA): primary subject "Time" (search under Cosmology/Cosmology, Laws)"
Time is thus to be regarded as a form under which certain modes of consciousness operate, but not as an external existence, outside of consciousness in every sense. This idea is sufficiently familiar since the time of Kant not to require extensive elaboration. In the terms of Kant, time is a transcendental form imposed upon phenomena. But, it follows, consciousness, in so far as it is not concerned with phenomena, is not so bound.

[10 of 11] Jung, Carl Gustav (1875-1961, Switzerland): primary subject "Space" (search under Cosmology/Cosmology, Laws)": detail "‘The Soul and Death’"
The fact that we are totally unable to imagine a form of existence without space and time by no means proves that such an existence is in itself impossible.

[11 of 11] Swedenborg (1688-1772, Sweden): primary subject "Space" (search under Cosmology/Cosmology, Laws)": source "True Christian Religion": detail "Section 29"
In the natural world there are spaces and times; but in the spiritual world these exist only apparently, and not actually. Time and space were introduced into these worlds for the purpose of distinguishing one thing from another, the great from the small, the many from the few, thus quantity from quantity, and so quality from quality; also to enable the bodily senses to distinguish between their objects, and the mental senses between theirs, and thereby to be affected, and to think and choose.